Tally Sticks

“One of the most important forms of currency in England in Henry’s time were notched ‘tally sticks’ used to record debts. Tally sticks were quite explicitly IOUs: both parties to a transaction would take a hazelwood twig, notch it to indicate the amount owed, and then split it in half. The creditor would keep one half, called ‘the stock’ (hence the origin of the term ‘stock holder’) and the debtor kept the other, called ‘the stub’ (hence the origin of the term ‘ticket stub.’) Tax assessors used such twigs to calculate amounts owed by local sherriffs. Often, though, rather than wait for the taxes to come due, Henry’s exchequer would often sell the tallies at a discount, and they would circulate, as tokens of debt owed to the government, to anyone willing to trade for them.”

Pg 48

State Theory of Money

So the big issue with Credit Theory is that whoever is writing all these IOUs that a money supply is based on has to be obscenely wealthy, which is why it’s usually The King or whoever who does it.

“The real impetus for the Chartalist position, in fact, came out of what came to be known as the ‘German Historical School,’ whose most famous exponent was the historian G.F. Knapp, whose State Theory of Money first appeared in 1905.”

Emperors and kings had always handled units of measure, so it makes sense they’d handle money too, under the chartalist model.

Monetary systems of measurement are remarkably stable. Under Henry II from 1154-1189, almost everyone in Europe was still using Charlemagne’s system from about 350 years earlier, even though some of the coins in his system never even existed, almost none of his coins were still around, and the ones that were were wildly variable in size/quality.

Actually Charlemagne’s system stayed in place for over 800 years, coming to be referred to as “imaginary money,” and derniers and livres were only abandoned as units of account around the time of the French Revolution.

But according to State Theory, what the money is made of (Silver or leather or fish or paper) doesn’t matter, as long as the state takes payment for taxes in it, because that becomes currency.

Actual modern banknotes are kind of the opposite though. They’re not backed by debts OF The King’s, they’re backed by debts TO the king. The Bank of England was founded in 1694 with a loan made by a consortium of bankers worth about 1.2 million Pounds. In return, they got a royal monopoly on issuing banknotes, basically that they could circulate IOUs from the king to them for that loan. (King owes bankers money for that loan, King writes a million IOUs, bankers give those IOUs to people to use as currency).

pg 47-8