More real early economics

We’re starting with two imaginary people from an early section. Josh who has shoes but needs potatoes, Henry who has potatoes but needs shoes.
-If they were Iroquois, Henry would tell his wife he needs shoes, his wife would tell the other matrons, and if they approved he’d get some shoes from the community stockpile. To each according to his needs, basically
-If they were in a small, intimate community, Henry would tell Josh his shoes were nice, and Josh would give them to him. The potatoes wouldn’t enter in because both would assume that if Josh ever needed potatoes, Henry would give him some.
–One interesting little aside, particularly nice things thus get passed around a lot, since people compliment them and then are given them. But if you really want to keep something, you say it was a gift.
-Even in a fairly large, impersonal town, Henry’s wife would strategically mention he needs shoes, Josh’s wife would get him to give Henry the shoes, and then Henry owes Josh “one,” which Josh would call in when he needed/wanted something from Henry.

“In any of these scenarios, the problem of ‘double coincidence of wants’ so endlessly invoked in the economics textbooks, simply disappears. Henry might not have something Joshua wants right now. But if the two are neighbors, it’s obviously only a matter of time before he will.

This in turn means that the need to stockpile commonly acceptable items in the way that Smith suggested disappears as well. With it goes the need to develop currency. As with so many actual small communities, everyone simply keeps track of who owes what to whom.”

pg 34-36

Real Bartering

-Barter does exist, just rarely between fellow villagers
-Nambikwara of Brazil: if one band sees the cooking fires of another nearby, they’ll send emissaries to negotiate a trade meeting. If accepted, they hide the women and children and invite the men over to talk. Chiefs give a speech praising the other band and belittling his own, they put aside weapons, sing and dance, then individuals approach each other to trade. They have this really ritualized thing where they argue over if the things they want are any good, agree on a trade, and then with mock-force take the things they’ve agreed to trade. Then they have a big feast.
-So basically for the Nambikwara, “Barter… was carried out between people who might otherwise be enemies and hovered about an inch away from outright warfare– and, if the ethnographer is to be believed– if one side later decided they had been taken advantage of, it could very easily lead to actual wars.”
-Gunwinggu of Western Arnhem Land in Australia: They have a region-wide moiety system (kinship groups where everyone in a group is part of one lineage), so people are basically divided up into teams and can only marry people from other teams. They have a big festival called the dzamalag where after some initial negotiations, strangers come to another group’s main camp. They sing and dance, then do flirty dances, fuck, and give them trade goods. When everyone’s satisfied, the host group gives the visitors their own trade goods in return. Then everyone eats.
-Point is, barter happens during “meetings with strangers who will, likely as not, never meet again, and with whom one certainly will not enter into any ongoing relations. This is why a direct one-on-one exchange is appropriate: each side makes their trade and walks away.” It’s also why there are big rituals involving food and dance and “shared pleasures,” and why they make light of the tension of possible hostility between them through play.